# Fundamentals of Algorithms & Data structure – Practice Test

Fundamentals of Algorithms & Data structure – Practice Test, Fundamentals of Algorithms & Data structure – Practice Test.

**C**omputer architecture MCQ questions and answers for the preparation of tests, exams, and certifications. So you will find questions about loops and conditionals, data structure, complexity, flowchart, pseudocode, and much more. This systematic learning method will easily prepare anyone to pass their exam.

Some description of Algorithm below that’s help to you pass this exam.

**What is an Algorithm?**

- An algorithm is a set of commands that must be followed for a computer to perform calculations or other problem-solving operations.
- According to its formal definition, an algorithm is a finite set of instructions carried out in a specific order to perform a particular task.
- It is not the entire program or code; it is simple logic to a problem represented as an informal description in the form of a flowchart or pseudocode.

- Problem: A problem can be defined as a real-world problem or real-world instance problem for which you need to develop a program or set of instructions. An algorithm is a set of instructions.
- Algorithm: An algorithm is defined as a step-by-step process that will be designed for a problem.
- Input: After designing an algorithm, the algorithm is given the necessary and desired inputs.
- Processing unit: The input will be passed to the processing unit, producing the desired output.
- Output: The outcome or result of the program is referred to as the output.

After defining what an algorithm is, you will now look at algorithm characteristics.

**Characteristics of an Algorithm**

An algorithm has the following characteristics:

- Input: An algorithm requires some input values. An algorithm can be given a value other than 0 as input.
- Output: At the end of an algorithm, you will have one or more outcomes.
- Unambiguity: A perfect algorithm is defined as unambiguous, which means that its instructions should be clear and straightforward.
- Finiteness: An algorithm must be finite. Finiteness in this context means that the algorithm should have a limited number of instructions, i.e., the instructions should be countable.
- Effectiveness: Because each instruction in an algorithm affects the overall process, it should be adequate.
- Language independence: An algorithm must be language-independent, which means that its instructions can be implemented in any language and produce the same results.

Moving on in this What is an Algorithm tutorial, you will look at why you need an algorithm.

**Why Do You Need an Algorithm?**

You require algorithms for the following reasons:

**Scalability**

It aids in your understanding of scalability. When you have a sizable real-world problem, you must break it down into small steps to analyze it quickly.

**Performance**

The real world is challenging to break down into smaller steps. If a problem can be easily divided into smaller steps, it indicates that the problem is feasible.

After understanding what is an algorithm, why you need an algorithm, you will look at how to write one using an example.

**How to Write an Algorithm?**

- There are no well-defined standards for writing algorithms. It is, however, a problem that is resource-dependent. Algorithms are never written with a specific programming language in mind.
- As you all know, basic code constructs such as loops like do, for, while, all programming languages share flow control such as if-else, and so on. An algorithm can be written using these common constructs.
- Algorithms are typically written in a step-by-step fashion, but this is not always the case. Algorithm writing is a process that occurs after the problem domain has been well-defined. That is, you must be aware of the problem domain for which you are developing a solution.